Friday, July 26, 2019

Employment and Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Employment and Society - Essay Example According to the Meaning of Work Survey, there are five principal aspects of life – work, family, community, religion and leisure. Respondents asked to rank the five according to their importance to them indicated in the majority that family came first then work second. However, a good number – accounting for slightly over one-fourth of all respondents – chose work above all, even family. The perspective implicitly assumed by the Survey is that the five aspects the respondents were asked to rank were different and mutually exclusive from each other, and that their apparent meanings are the basis upon which they were ranked.Studies have shown, however, that there are multiple dimensions from which to approach the meaning of work, that explains why individuals would consider it more important than some (or all) of the other aspects of life. The meaning and context of â€Å"Work† Overell (2009) what is obvious to all – that occupational work is importa nt because joblessness is not an economically feasible option. Where remunerated work is viewed as scarce, therefore, the value of having a job rises dramatically. Other than this, however, work provides people with their self-identity, a structure to their time and activities, and a means of self-expression as much as a means to an economic end. Work is not a monolithic whole, however, but has many shades and implications. A study was conducted on three non-economic aspects of the work environment: job demands, job discretion, and job social relationships. According to Karasek (1976), a lack of discretion over the contents of a job tends to make the worker either passive in leisure and community associations or experience mental strain. On the other hand, work that is psychologically demanding does not always lead to deleterious effects, as long as the level of job discretion is not low. When job discretion is high, work that is psychologically demanding tends to make the worker mo re socially active in leisure and in community participation. In a more recent study, Knowles and Taylor (1990) identified two dimensions, each with two â€Å"poles†, that cut across work, family and leisure activities in general. For the first dimension, its positive pole involved activities viewed as challenging, creative and under the individual’s control, and were viewed as enjoyable – communicating with people, creating new business, and finding solutions – whether done at work or at home. Its negative pole involves the routine and mundane activities over which the individual exercises little control, such as completing paperwork, doing the shopping or general administration or housework, which are seen as necessary but stressful. In the second dimension, one pole involved socialization and moral obligation and included settling disputes, attending meetings, and doing things as a family. The other pole involved activities done alone, without any soci al or moral obligation, such as most leisure activities. It was found that whether the respondents chose work or home as preferable over the other, it usually involved pursuit of a lifestyle that was perceived as non-stressful, challenging, and enjoyable, and wherein they are free to exercise their freedom of choice and personal control. Frames of reference: Challenges to the traditional concept of work vs life There is a social context to work that is beside the concept of individual undertaking. In seeking to understand challenges to the traditional sexual/gender paradigm of â€Å"work-life balance† (WLB), it must be noted that a greater emphasis must be devoted to understanding the allocation of the burden of responsibilities discharged by adult members of a household, both as to size and composition. Another important consideration is the quality of recreational activity. WLB decisions take into account the normative expectations linked to gender roles, the regularities a nd patterns with which people meet these expectations, and the lifestyles and consumption habits that result

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