Monday, April 1, 2019

Changing National Curriculum For Physical Education Education Essay

Changing National platform For strong-arm training learning cigarettevasAbstract This look for forget em carcass a critical outline on the contrasting themes across the differentiated DfEE/QCA 1999 National course of study and the saucily enforced 2007 published documents, in relation to the content of forcible instruction. The look for testament be formatted and found around discussion on third bring out curricular themes creative thinking, flexibleness, and inclusion body ending discussion with a straighten out few more than obvious additions to the reinvigorated National program for strong-arm Education (NCPE)To begin it is any-important(a) to briefly define a full general view of natural genteelness deep guttle our find outry the aim of corporeal Education is to develop physical competence so that each(prenominal) children argon able to move efficiently, potently and honorablely and extrapolate what they our doing. The outcome physical litera cy- is as important to childrens general training as literacy and numeracy. Declaration on sensual Education (2005)The Education Reform Act (1998) outlined the entitlement for wholly disk operating system education pupils to bugger off sensible Education (PE) let ind as an integral part of the core broadcast. The National Curriculum for sensual Education (NCPE) was introduced for pupils aged between 5-16 years in 1992 and was modified in 1995 (DfC 1995) since revise for trails in England and became richly operational in September 2001, with the New Curriculum being enforced in 2007, meaning the DfEE/QCA 1999 NC is still in office staff for years 9, 10, 11 and primary schools.Due to the limited word count only the three stated reach of discussion will be discussed in explicit detail, except before initiating discussion on these battlefields, it is important to explain to you the reader the major changes between the two documents which will wear birth reference throug hout the essay. Firstly the starting point for on the whole the changing in the alternate curriculum is the excogitation of the three statutory aims which give focus for curriculum design, which take hold never antecedently existed. Secondly the DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE has foursome strands of programme of study, whereas the New NC 2007 has been veritable into 5 key processes. The section, key processes or so resemble the previous programme of study meaning teaching will be broadly familiar with it. The addition of developing physical and moral capacity recognises the importance of physical qualities and mental determination to the final outcome. The key apprehensions (competence, performance, creativity, and healthy active briostyles) holisti inspecty combine what is at the heart of PE giving the apprentice ideas on what is indispensable to be physically educated. The breath of study in the DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE, has been developed boost in the 2007 NCPE into a more flexible enjoin and content, focusing the curriculum around pupils developing different slipway of intellection that underpin success in a much more flexible array of activities there is also statutory requirements for pupils to be shoted opportunities that engage them with authentic audiences and real purpose, enabling PE beyond the school context.The first of all primary(prenominal) area of discussion will be based around creativity in the two stated NCPE. creativity is a diverse slippery concept that is very(prenominal) hard to define it has variously been described as imagination or ingenuity manifested in any valued pursuit (Elliot 1975 139) a function of intelligence (Robinson, 2001), or going beyond the conventional concur (Craft 2000). In relation to an educational context Lavin (2008) notes how the National Curriculum for fleshly Education (NCPE) has never taken emphasis towards a creative blast neither in terms of learning or teaching creatively. Pupils found in the DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE, have previously been asked to acquire and develop skills, ask and arrest skills, compositional ideas and manoeuvre evaluate and improve performance and have familiarity and understanding of health and fitness. On analyse the only real areas that previously explored the realness of creativity were with leaping, games and gymnastic dimensions of the curriculum. Outdoor and Adventure activities also expose no influence requirement to develop a creative progression pupils were just pass judgment to enhance fuss solving skills which are a very different cognitive process. The National informative Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (NACCCE) recognise this by stating that, Creativity and problem solving are not the same thing. Not all problems call for creative solutions or original thinking. Some tin can be solve routinely and logically. NACCCE (199924) Pioneering research like this kick upstairsd an onslaught of radical precise initiatives. Ov er the past few years the notion of creativity has been developed as a constant feature in educational initiatives. In 2003 the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) underwent a survey to examine and find out schools good practice in the promotion of creativity. Their report, Expect the Unexpected create Creativity in primary and secondary school, found that there was primarily high flavor creative work. Whats more the Qualifications and Curriculum Authoritys (QCA) creativity project, Creativity find it, promote it (2004) developed a vital resource to encourage the implementation of this concept by providing practical materials and examples of developing creativity in a school typesetting. In extension of these initiatives, Roberts (2006) report, Nurturing Creativity in teenaged People, set out a clear framework to influence the advertise development of creative approaches to be enforced in the 2007 NCPE.With the launch of the rewrite Key Stage 3 NC in July 2007, the im portance of creative approaches was ultimately recognised and learn watered. The chief executive of the QCA (2007) quotes by mixing tradition with more creative approaches to the curriculum, we will attain our objective of providing successful learners, confident individuals and liable citizens. As opposed from the DfEE/QCA 1999 NC, one of the tailfin concepts in the bran- upstart secondary NCPE at Key Stage 3 being creativity. It highlights how pupils need to understand the concept of creativity in order toUse imaginative shipway to express and communicate ideas, solve problems, and overcome challenges.Explore and essay with techniques, tactics and compositional ideas to produce efficient and effective outcomes.National Curriculum (2007)The connexion for sensible Education (Afpe) (2007) state how the importance of creativity within this new curriculum is paramount being one of the underpinning key concepts of the subject. Young great deal need opportunity to fire up the ir imaginations, overcome challenges, explore and experiment with techniques, tactics and compositional ideas, and to be able to express and communicate freely, all to produce efficient and effective outcomes.Kirk, MacDonald and OSullivan (2006) state how creative learners are point to discover k forthwithledge themselves and to create their take understanding of the subject matter. Which interrelates to the new Personal information and Thinking Skills (PLTS) initiative bough in by the establishment in 2004. This encourages learners person-to-personisation within the curriculum, encouraging them to learn to learn.As a lowest report for this section of discussion the Afpe (2007) win highlight the much required government support in association with this educational movement quoting how the government clearly feel that the nations future in terms of development of a more flexible, dynamic economy, is best served by developing more creativity in our unripened citizenry.T o initiative discussion on curricular flexibility DfE 1995 NCPE, formatted its physical activities through a schedule of units and half units the 1995 NC stated thatPupils should be taught Games, at least one other full area of natural process (Units A+B), and at least two additional half areas of activeness (Unit A) taken from different areas of activity. At least one half area of activity (Unit A) must be either Gymnastics Activity or Dance.(DfE 19956)This formatted take of activities do the curriculum very regimented and complex body partd, prohibiting any come up of curriculum change and flexibility of bringing in new activities. Capel and Piotrowski (2000) state how the content in physical education, can be viewed as the mountain pass of traditional nuance, meeting the needs of the individual and preparing pupils for life after school. In regards to the creation of a broad balanced content across curricular history the 1992 NCPE haled con spotrable bias towards games what s more in the 1995 DfE NCPE, emphasis on each of the six areas of activity was not equal games again prevailed as the dominant area. The balance in the DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE was somewhat re-addressed most notable because games where not compulsory at Key Stage 4. In critical analysis, basing the DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE on the notion of providing, a broad and balanced curriculum, has featured in more heated discussions nigh the pragmatic flexibility of the six areas of activity dance, games, gymnastics, fluid and water safe(p)ty, athletics, and outdoor and adventures activities. There have been politically based comparisons involving inclusion rates of some of these regimented areas, based on pupils and teachers flexibility and choice. mendicancy the question, is enough eon given to other breath of study areas for pupils to establish a good skill level? It seems not as, Ofsted (2002) alerts us that, time allocated to team games is sometimes between three and quin times that for gymnas tics, dance and other aspects of the PE curriculum, Ofsted (20024) thus completely contradicting the preliminary term broad and balanced. snow-clad (2004) supports this argument further by questioning the appropriateness of the DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE categories in regards to being institutionalized within our modern culture, as the dominant larks like netball and football, which unfinished small relevancy to modern recreational activities like cycling, jogging and yoga. ovalbumin (2004) further exclaims the non-apparent link to activities pursued in our contemporary youth culture such as skateboarding and BMX biking. The Qcda (2008), bring to light how the new curriculum enforced offers schools greater flexibility and coherence to aid tailor made specific learning to individual learner needs, with less prescribed subject content although pupils will still be taught the general subject familiarity that was so prevalent in the DfEE/QCA 1999 NC. Crichton Casbon, curriculum adviser for PE at the QCA, divulges how the proposed changes offer teachers more flexibility to be creative quoting We will know were winsome when schools will be designing their get curriculums to suit the needs of their own particular youngsters. Pe and cavort Today (20071) The new curriculums range and content support focus around pupils developing alternative ways of thinking that underlie achievement in altering activities, inhibiting greater flexibility and choice for the pupils and teachers to select alternative activities that engage them with the concept and processes, thus fulfilling aspirations, preferences and needs set. These can include (at least four)outwitting opponentsaccurate replication of actions, phrases and sequencesexploring and communicating ideas, concepts and emotionsperforming at upper limit levelsidentifying and solving problemsexercising safely and effectively.(New Secondary Curriculum 2007)Crichton illustrates this with the example of swimming. If you trick wa ter polo you are outwitting opponents, with synchronized swimming you will be replicating movements, in lane swimming youll be performing to your maximum speed, in life saving you are focused on problem solving, while in aqua aerobics you will be exercising to improve fitness, Pe and frolic Today (20072) this demonstrates how each activity requires you to swim but also focuses on a different outcome, demonstrating increase activity flexibility, which produces a framework to take pupil interest. Jim Knight the labour party policy MP back up in his speech (2008), that the new curriculum will intend to brook greater flexibility, with more opportunity for young people to shape their own learning route, enabling them to make the most of their specific talents and follow a working style that suits them, and as Hayes and Stidder (2003) discuss, any curriculum that captures pupils personal interests and enthusiasm is going to be more effective than one that does not. great flexibility will also give teachers more time to process pupils who have fallen behind to catch up, and those eager pupils who our awaiting further challenges. The Qcda (2009) highlight how flexibility in the curriculum gives schools more opportunity to adapt the NCPE to make the most of their local environment, resources and circumstance, to go meet pupils interests. An example could be if a school was in a town like Newquay who have a fantastic sea-side resource, there is no reason that surfing or body boarding couldnt be established as an activity in the curriculum. The Governments introduction of the National Activities Week will also support time implications to written text diverse, innovative activities such as this.To conclude this area of discussion the overall impact of this flexibility development to the learner is that it provides them with the support and challenge they need, whilst better meeting their interests and aspirations. As a result this will lead to further engagement with learning, to prohibit better progress and higher standards. Aiding a fine-textured development progress and overall enjoyment of the school experience.To bring about discussion on the final area, Inclusion the revision of the NCPE DfEE/QCA 1999 for England featured for the first time a expound, statutory statement in inclusion. Penny (2002) states that in doing so re-emphasized the centrality of, inclusion, and inclusive practices in government policy related to education in PE. In broad terms the inclusion statement ensured all pupils were changed to participate as fully and effectively as possible within the NC and the statutory assessment arrangements, (DfEE/QCA 199933) regardless of pupil background, circumstance and potential barriers to their learning. This required teachers to plan the NC with mandatory regard to three principles of inclusion1. Setting adapted learning challenges.2. Responding to pupils diverse learning needs3. overcoming barriers to learning and as sessment for individuals and groups of pupils.(DfEE/QCA 199928)Whilst teachers were expected to employ differentiated strategies to adhere to these principles, teacher understandings and conceptualizations of inclusion were still very much in its infancy. Hayes and Stidder (2003) highlight discussion on how the DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE needed dramatic re-shaping for inclusivity to be activated they saw that the organization of learning would have to be infinitely more flexible, with central relevance being based on differentiated practices which is previously been discussed a prevalent theme in the new NCPE. The new NC has taken inclusivity to the next level, by wearing unneurotic previous inclusion programs of study together with the 10 high quality outcomes, the PESSCL work strands and the embedment of the all Child Matters agenda into a cohesive curriculum. either Child Matters is a new approach to the thoroughly-being of children and young people from birth to age 19. The Governme nts aim is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need tobe healthystay safeenjoy and achievemake a positive contributionachieve economic well-being.Every Child Matters (20036)In aid of inclusion the youthfulness Sports Trust (YST) and Sport England play a central role in the DCSF and DCMS in the delivery of PE and Sport for young people aiming to encouraging young people to adopt healthier lifestyles, enjoying sport in a safe environment and striving to achieve success, all of which are key aims of the Every Child Matters agenda. The DfEE/QCA 1999 NCPE permitted pupils to achieve that of two hours of physical activity a week, including the NC for physical education and extra-curricular activities. With a percentage increase of young people doing at least two hours of high quality PE and sport each week raising from, 25% in 2002 to 90% in 2008, (PE and Sport look back 20084) demonstrating how significant developments in inclus ion where already prevalent. In the production of the new NCPE, the established links with governing bodies like YST and Sport England where progressed in the development of their first outcome, taper to Delivering the Five Hour Offer. The aim of this commitment is to enable every young person aged 5-16 to have access to five hours of PE and Sport each week. It is expected that schools will provide three of the five hours two hours through high quality PE within the curriculum and at least one hour a week of sport for all young people beyond the curriculum. Community and club providers will look for to ensure that an additional two hours a week are available. PE and Sport Survey (20086) YST further support specialist sports Colleges and the infrastructure of the school sport partnerships in the implementation of the secondary curriculum. As a brief side note this is where the introduction of School Sports Coordinators (SSCO) within the new NC has become so vital because as Flinto ff (2003) states the essence of a SSCO is to organize and encourage the school and community sport partnerships, freeing up time for PE teachers to develop innovative activities. The five hour offer forms a realization on the feature that young people all have different needs and preferences which forever change, but still need to be catered for this supports the flexible ethos of the new NCPE, and links in support to the 2007 NC, Curriculum Opportunities section, 4.d, Following Pathways to other activities beyond school. (2007195)The main discussion has been based around personal preferences to which are the most changed areas but there are other more obvious differences that will now be discussed briefly, to end discussion and develop holistic understanding further.The sign obvious difference is the introduction of an Importance Statement that is something that has never existed in a NCPE before its purpose is to holistically establish a general knowledge to the new NC brief, r eading rather like a mission statement for the subject. It describes what PE is really all about by outlining why PE is important and how it can contribute to the curriculum aims. Thus showing the types of outcomes you would hope to see from a good PE department making an excellent starting point for planning.The differing structure of the NCs is also initially something that strikes you, as the DfEE/QCA 1999 NC is an A4 document, bearing very explicit detailed guidelines on contrast the 2007 NC is formatted in a small slimed down less prescriptive booklet with short concise instructions, with explanatory notes aboard to aid simple reading, similar to the slimmer DfE 1995 NC.Lastly cross-curricular dimensions bear major relevance in the 2007 NCPE. These promote coherence between subjects to help learners make effective links in their learning. The Planning Guide for Schools (2009) state how the cross-curricular dimensions are unifying(a) areas of learning that span the curriculum and help young people make sense of the world. They are not curriculum subjects, but are essential aspects of learning that should permeate the curriculum and the life of a school.In endpoint this essay should demonstrate how important it is to remember how investigation of the past will help aid us see the way forward for the future. Holistically the essay has bought discussion upon how the prevalent contributions the new curriculum has to ensure better coherence. It has further highlights how it presents the curriculum as much more than just a set of content to cover whilst still maintaining the best of the past yet offering, increased opportunity to design learning that develops the wider skills for life and learning as well as making links to the major ideas and challenges that face society and have significance for individuals. QCDA (2008) However after researching this topic their our areas of concern regarding questioning of the new curriculum being effectively institutional ize within schools so adjacent discussion in this essay the next area of analysis should be focused around the questions that, once the new innovative curriculum is fully enforced through all key stages, can physical education staff actually enforced it effectively, truly following the specific guidelines, can they handle the extra work load, are they to stuck in their old ways for change to actually take place?ReferencesA Planning Guide for Schools Cross-Curricular Dimensions (2009) capital of the United Kingdom QCAAssociation for somatogenic Education (2007). Physical Education Matters. functionary Journal of the Association for Physical Education. Vol.2 No.4Capel, S and Piotrowski, S (2003) Issues in Physical Education. Oxon Routledge Falmer.Craft, A. (2000) Creativity across the Primary Curriculum Framing and Developing Practice. capital of the United Kingdom Routledge.Declaration on Physical Education (2005). National Summit, capital of the United Kingdom ( s ection of Education and Science (DES) (1992) Physical Education in the National Curriculum.London HMSO.DfE (Department for Education) (1995) Physical Education in the National Curriculum, London HMSODfEE/QCA (Department for Education and Employment/Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) (1999) Physical Education The National Curriculum for England, London HMSOElliot, R. K. (1975) Imagination, a material body of Magical Faculty, Inaugural lecture, University of Birmingham, 1975.Every Child Matters Agenda (2003) Presented by sevens TSO Norwich.Flintoff, A (2003) The School Sport Co-ordinator Programme Changing the Role of Physical Education Teacher. Journal of Sport, Education and Society Vol 8, No. 2, pp, 231-250Hayes, S and Stidder, G. (2003) candour and Inclusion in Physical Education and Sport. Oxon Routledge.NationalCurriculum2007-http// %3Freturn%3D/key-stages-3-and-4/subjects/physical-education/index.aspx%23page3_p (Date Accessed 31/10/09)Jim Knight (2008) http// (Date Accessed 11/11/09)Lavin, J. (2008) Creative Approaches to Teaching Physical Education Helping Children Achieve Their True Potential. London Routledge.National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (NACCCE) (1999) All Our Futures Creativity, civilization and Education. Suffolk DfEE.New Secondary Curriculum- http// (Date Accessed 6/11/09)Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) (2003). Expecting the Unexpected Developing creativity in primary and secondary schools, London Ofsted.Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) (2002). Secondary subject reports 2000/1 Physical Education, London, HMSE.PE and Sport Today (2007) http// (Date Accessed 15/11/09)Penney, D. (2002) Equality, equity, and inclusion in Physical Education and School Sport, in A. Laker (ed.) The Sociology of Sport and Physical Education. An Introductory Reader. London Routledge Farmer.Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (2008) A big picture of the curriculum. London CCEAQualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (2004). Creativity, find it, promote it. London QCAQualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (2007) http//www.qca_12195.aspx (Date Accessed 13/11/09)Qualifications ND Curricular Developments (Qcda) (2009) The 11-19 Curriculum From Implementation to Development. London (Date Accessed 7/11/09)Roberts, P. (2006) Nurturing Creativity in YOUNG People, London DCMS DfESRobinson, K. 2001 Out of Our Minds Learning To Be Creative. Oxford. CapstoneThe PE and Sport Strategy for Young People (2009) A Guide to Delivering the Five Hour Offer. Sport England, Youth Sport

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