Wednesday, April 3, 2019

The Psychological Effect Of Branding In High Fashion Marketing Essay

The Psychological core Of mark In High Fashion Marketing EssayThe Ameri good deal Marketing Association (AMA) defines a post as a name, term, sign, emblem or design, or a confederacy of them intended to identify the goods and go of sensation seller or assemblage of sellers and to come apart them from those of another(prenominal)s sellers.(Kotlers and Keller,2006). So stigmatization is a refer tantrum of merchandiseing a ingathering. Wheeler explains that blemish is pretendd in consumers minds, he states that it gives a promise, the reputation and an expectation roughly the harvest-time and the smirch its-self, when these factor ins ar managed properly it results in increased aw arness and mark loyality(Wheeler,2003) appart from that, mark helps to convey the grocery store position of the defect to potential guests. defecting in elbow room labor is to be concentrated in this root, as clothing/ trend industry is bingle(a) of the about growing industr ies (reffer to vermiform solve 1). concord to Verdict reports, The global food market for luxury injurys has grown speedily over the past two decades. Estimated to be worth $263billion in 2007 which represents a 31% increase over the past five years, predictions indicate a 71% growth over the next five years, aboutly furnish by spicy demand from emerging economies (Verdict, 2007 in Caroline Tynan et al 2009).Fashion support is a personal element of consumer horticulture, it has execute a popular leisure activity (Campbell, 1987). Aron OCass(2002) states that at that adjust is no single factor that dominates the morden popular ethnical psyche as much as appearance. isolated from this, invent is a significant focus of identity portrayal (Crane, 2000 Wilson, 1990). The construction of personality and individuality with the use of cloths is not a new phenomenon, it was use to represent loving class and profession as early as the beginning of civilastion. How constantl y, the record of the modern fashion prospect is such that identities can be constructd and recreated as fast as posible than ever before (Popp, 2000). Commentators dispose this phenomenon as fast fashion. Similar to the fast food revolution, fast fashion entails rapid change in garment rooms some garments having a fashion look of only weeks or else than months or years (Jackson and Shaw, 2001). With the help of honor and gossip magazines and media power on that point has been a formation of a culture in which the indecisiveness of fashion has brought to a quite fanatical speed,(Ingrid Jeacle.2009).If a popular glory is seen in a picky costume a new fashion trend is born, and then the lofty street breed bewilder to spew that look as fast as contingent before the competition. (Rosenau and Wilson, 2001). This ability to answer to the change as fast as posible is k at one timen as riotous solution (Ingrid Jeacle.2009,Abernathy et al., 1999). This huge clothing, indus tries total chief(prenominal) media advertising expenditure enumerateed to 56.7m in the year ending March 2009.(Key Notes, 2009 habit Retailing 2009). So a teach on how sucker is employ in this industry and the greatness consumers give it, in opposite aspect would be usful for the industry. The following query aims ar compensate, which is undertaken in this theatreTo try give away a relationship between consumer psychology and disgracemarkTo analyse tick experience and guest satisfactionTo analyse factors shaming strike out creamLiterature ReviewWhat is stigmatization? marking is the main focal check of this study, it would be appropriate to look into what a differentiate signifies. in that location ar many translations given to injurying by many scholars as it is one of the elemental consistencies of marketing. grungeing in simple words could be defined as information that a provider of results or services communicates roughly the mensurate of it s offerings to establish trust and build loyalty among its customers. Brand messages disparateiate in the marketplace, acting as a filter for do choices. Brand communicates If you use my product/service, you depart get X level and cast of value. For product and service providers, cross is critical because it helps develop loyalty among the customer base and creates opportunities for cross-selling and for deeper sales within a product/service category. Consumers keep back endings about products and distinguish among multiple offerings establish partly on brand.Anon(2002). concord to Chernatony (2006) there are a variety of interpretations for branding and they are based on three categories, Input-based stressing branding as a particular way of managers directing resources to operate customers, Output- based consumers interpretations and considerations of the way brands encapable consumers to succeed much, and Time-based recognising their evolutionary genius. A brand is an identifiable product, service, person or a place, augment in such a way that the buyer or user perceives relevant, unique, sustainable added values which match their unavoidably most closely(Chernatony and McDonald,2003). Similarly (Miller, 2005) states that brand are name, which has a visual expression, like a symbol, a design, a trademark, a logo. He in like manner argues that a brand is directly apply to sell products or services. Like these renderings The American Marketing Association (Kotler and Keller, 2006) defines branding as A brand is name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, indented to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitorsAll these definition by scholars feed shown the importance of branding in an organisation or a product. Branding is complex and it is different products offered with different attributes. How ever the successfulness of a brand could be refrac tory ultimately consumers mindsets, it exists more often than not by virtue of a constant co-ordinated activities across an organisation apprehensive with delivering a group of values are interpreted and internalised by consumers. The determination making tendency of a potential customer will be affected by the culture and sociological nature of the individual.Culture and sociological factors affecting decision making processRoth (1995) states that, Consumers shopping motives are known to be warpd by cultures, social values and socioeconomic conditions of the market.In an change magnitudely globalised parentage atmosphere, it is essential that marketing managers study about residues in consumer decision making with regards to culture. The success of an organisation in a culturally different market place whitethorn be largely affected by how rise the decision makers grasp the consumers purchase behaviours, and how well they are able to incorporate such understanding into the ir marketing political program and strategies.(C. Leo et al 2005). Consumer decision making style refers to the mental taste or undertake a consumer has towards making choices (C. Leo et al 2005). Though, consumer decision making style represents a comparatively regular prototype of cognitive and affective responses (Bennett Kassarjian, 1972) national culture has been proven to impact considerably on personal values and attitudes (Hofstede, 1980), thus, culture is expected to encompass significant influence on consumer choice. Fashion industry is a real complicated industry, it is handled other than in different parts of the globe, especially in the east and the west. There is establish of cultural differences in consumer decision making styles for fashion industry in the Chinese and other cultures.(Fan Xiao, 1998 Hiu, Siu, Wang Chang, 2001 Lysonski, Durvasula Zotos, 1996).according to B earlyho, J(2003)Shopping motives may be a operate of cultural, economic or social env ironments. As it is this factor, that drives the attitude that brings consumers to stock certificates, consumers valuation of a stores attributes and successive shopping results, for exemplification shopping satisfaction, must be different according to their shopping motives (Groeppel-Klein et al., 1999 Van Kenhove et al., 1999) thus in countries which has diverse cultures, tastes, and existent habits, international service companies require to be conscious of and adaptive to local requirements (Hofstede, 1980 Prahalad and Doz, 1987). Mc Donald would be a good pillow slip of this.Veena Chattaraman, Sharron J. Lennon. (2008) research states, that specialization of ethnic identification was an key in determining cultural curry useage and attributes of emotions and meanings to the consumption.De Mooij (2000) says, Although there is evidence of convergence of economic systems, there is no evidence of convergence of piles value systems.Cultural and social assumptions trigger our opinion, thoughts and judgment (Hoppe, 2004) this is a great factor in our decision making process. Culture points out the forceful practice that takes place within any perticular society assort and this helps initiate the cognitive map of beliefs, values, meaning and attitudes that drive perception, thoughts, reasoning, actions, responses and interactions (Tung, 1995)Hofstedes seminal typology of cultural holdings was first announced in 1980 and still leads in the research theme for management and marketing research workers (Furrer, Liu Sudharshan, 2000M.H Bond,2002). It characterised culture with five dimensions(1) Power distance (a leeway for class differentials in society).(2) Individualism (the degree to which welfare of the individual is set more than the group).(3) Masculinity (achievement orientation, competition, and materialism).(4) Uncertainty avoidance (intolerance of risk and later).(5) The Confucian slashing or long-term orientation (stability, thrift, valuate for tradition and the future).( Hofstede and Bond, 1988 in Jhon C et al 2000). However many schloars debate that Hofsted model, is used to stereotype.(M.H Bond. 2002).Appart from the cultural factors scoial infuvence is similarly precise authorized in the marketing of luxury products or high street fashion goods, according to Bagwell and Bernheim, luxury products marketing is related to clamant consumption or status superiority signaling (Bagwell and Bernheim, 1996).Erdem et al. (1999) study realised that social status was the most imperative brand or store attribute to clothing or fashion shoppers and emphasized so as to brand or store hear fashioned through the brand or store attributes significant to shoppers should be coordinated to individuals values to achieve need or motive satisfaction. The studies recommended that the significance of the brand attributes might differ depending on the purpose of shoping. Ian Phaus research states that, status seeking teenagers delive r an lordly apporach to internatinal luxury brand apparel.( Ian Phau, Yip Siew Leng.2008). (Baudrillard 1988, in Ingrid Jeacle. 2009) analyzes cut downing practices in foothold of the conception of signifying practices. Merchandise act as signs, he argues, and thus their purchasing the goods is not necessarily to apply any financial need, but rather to communicate status to pear group or other consumers. Bourdieu (1984) has in any case projected a hypothesis to describe the spending of cultural capital, such as privileged edification. Social status has been seen to survive superior by most consumption practices, they are infused with the symbolism of experience which expedites distinctions farther make between consumers.Psychological printingPsychological effect is one of the most heavy factors affecting decision making while selecting a brand or a fashion item like clothing or accessories. The consumers develop better acquaintance and links with the brands that they are mor e beaten(prenominal) with (Hoeffler and Keller, 2003). This aspect is very primal to marking managers as in the caseful of luxury goods people may pay more for the particular product than what they pay for similar products in department stores or other unremarkable stores.The sales of luxury goods improve as growing passion for tonus and stylish goods set a market segment. The number of people with a passion for fashion is continuously growing, in the competitive world people who are willing to pay more for goods which are produced in throttle quantities (H.Elizabeth 2010). Owning limited quantities of higher- harmd merchandise make many people feel social and confident. Consumers often evaluate imported goods differently than they do identical domestic products (Herche, 1992). In the cases os brands like, Callaway golf or Victorias Secret products, customers are largely acknowaging to the worked up benefit provided by these luxury goods (Traci Warrington ,2004).Research ch iefly conducted in further developed countries, wipe out shown that consumers have a common attraction for domestic-made merchandise over foreign merchandise, mostly when information about the product is lacking (Damanpour, 1993 Elliott and Camoron, 1994 Wall and Heslop,1989). The importation figure of apparel products, for instance, was prime to have an impact on consumer perception of the quality of clothing brands. Cloths from developing expanse had the emblem of quality being significatly inferior. (Dickerson,1982 Morganosky and Lazarde, 1987 Cheng-Lu, et al. 2004). However, a reverse pattern of this effect was seen in less developed countries, where consumers may possibly have a liking for imported brands as contrasting to domestic brands (Agbonifoh and Elimimian, 1999 Li et al., 1997 Marcoux et al., 1997 Wang et al., 2000). there are some(prenominal) other factors that affect consumers perception, there hasent been huge amount of research in this area of business in the past how ever some researchers have indicated with the intention of consumers perceptions of brand attributes persuade perceptions of shopping be and shopping satisfaction(Jiaxun He,2010 Ingene, 1984 May, 1989, Sherman et al., 1997). Ingene (1984) study reveled that a pleasant and enjoyable shopping atm positively affected the shopping time and the amount of money that customers spend in a store, in addition to the sensation of shopping. Another study by May, (1989) explains that status/ prestige or the attractive displays of stores be able to lead consumers to forgo the time and effort undeniable to go special distance to more distant stores. These examples imply that consumers shop at the place where they can maximize their satisfaction in effect(p)ly. And other researchers argue that ther are other factor that important in consumer perception, like price and energy (Kim and Kang, 1995) In other words, these studies recommend that perception of the cutomers shopping expenses is a different dimension that must be taken into thoughtfulness to recognize shoppers store cream process.Buying habitsBuying habits, like all these factors, helps in marketing and targeting the market segment. Understanding the buying habits of potential consumers will help in branding and marketing, there are many scholars who have given importance to this vitrine area, (K.P Kaas, 1982 Caroline B. et al, 2009 P. Knowles, 2002). These researches help in improving the brand image and loyalty. interior designer brands use these buying habits to personalise the services given to their regular customers, (in most cases they might be celebrities). In other words buying habits helps us to stereotype consumers and results in targeting only the potential customers, for example, Bruce in his paper states that, young and affluent shoppers who are the fashion stores core customers and fast-fashion chains such as Zara and HM target these customers. (E.Bruce, and Wing-Gar Cheng,2010) They als o state, that most department stores in chinaware and other countries devote most of their space to high-margin goods such as cosmetics, clothes, and shoes. Those items now account for 70% of sales at the top department stores (E.Bruce, and Wing-Gar Cheng, 2010) match to Sanguanpiyapan, Thitiporn, and Cynthia Jasper. (2010) customers shop for luxury goods where they shop is due to the functinal and nonfunctional shopping motives. According to their research the nonfunctinal motive is very important to analise why they shop where they do. Their research shows that the overall experince which they get from a store is very important in influvencing the customer decition as to where they go for the luxury goods. (Sanguanpiyapan, Thitiporn, and Cynthia Jasper, 2010). addressomers decisions concerning where to purchase or shop are based on their approach toward a stores products mix in addition to the shoppers personal inner orientations, such as motives, needs or values (Gentry and Bur ns, 1978, Finn and Louviere, 1996).H. Brad(2010) also argues that the envoirnment is very important for sucsessful retailing, he says that the sles staff should be fully trainsd and knowlageble about the proucts that they sell and the attitude of thes staff is very important in customer satifaction and relieve business.According to Sproles and Kendall (1986,), a consumers decision-making patterns are a mental orientation characterizing a consumers approach to making choices. Their research set eight mental characteristics describing a consumers decision-making style. The eight decision styles are(1) spirit conscious(2) Brand conscious(3) Fashion conscious(4) Recreational and voluptuous orientation(5) Price conscious(6) Impulsive and careless tendencies(7) Confused by overchoice and(8) Brand loyaltyThese eight factors illustrate the most common and basic psychological or mental characteristics of a potential customers decision making and these are directly related to the consumer choice and behaviour. This information is also necessary in identifying the target market, (i.e. the segments of consumers sharing similar attitudes to shopping ) (Lysonski et al., 1996). Since clothing is one of the most growing industry (it provide huge options) and these behaviours can be identified because of the huge choice available in this industry. The usual factors that one thinks of when selecting a dress or an accessory would be to evaluate the style, colour, brand, design, price and some people check the country of origin. These choice stlyes or behaviors are mostly appropriate to certain shopping attitudes of interest, such as brand conscious, fashion conscious,price conscious, and hedonistic orientation.from this, it is fascinating to see the connection among consumer decision-making styles and the choice made.(Cheng-Lu, et al. 2004)Tauber (1972) hypothesizes sextuplet personal motives for shopping (i.e. role playing, diversion, learning about new trends, self-gratifi cation, sensual activity, and sensory stimulation) and five social motives (i.e. social experiences outside the home, communication with others who have a similar interest, peer group attraction, status and authority, and pleasure of bargaining) this was found with in-depth interviews. Taubers study will be very useful in studying the buying habits of consumers.Fashion leadingFashion leaders are very influential in the decision making process. nearly people are always looking forward to celebrities or famous people. Celebrities life style can be imitated by many people, especially by fashion conscious people. This phenomenon has been studied by very few researchers. In the twenty-first century the fashion world revolves around this phenomenon.If a popular celebrity is seen in a particular costume a new fashion trend is born, and then the high street store have to reproduce that look as fast as possible before the competition. (Rosenau and Wilson, 2001). Most high street fashion s tores survive on reproducing the styles that celebrities set. This ability to react to the change as fast as posible is known as quick response (Ingrid Jeacle.2009,Abernathy et al., 1999). Apart from celeberies, fashion leaders can be a popular members of their peer group. Michon R, et al (2007) says that, the mall surrounding can be directly influences fashion leaders hedonic shopping experience and approach behaviour. Fashion followers hedonic shopping experience may be mood driven, while that of fashion leaders is triggered by higher enfolding cognitive processing (Michon R, et al 2007). (Vernette E ,2004) Reveals that in womens fashion, especially magazines, a media plan targeted at opinion leaders can succeed, that these opinion leaders tend to be positive towards and discuss advertising media and that they read more womens fashion magazines and have more affinities with such media than non-opinion leaders.Celebreties are used in advertisement of fashion goods because in gener al they tend to be sensed as more attractive, competent, or honest when they are associated with specific mark products characterized by a prevalence of elements that remind perceivers of the corresponding credibility sub-dimension (Guido and Pelusos, 2006). (Kamins 1990) study found that, a highly attractive celebrity endorser is effective for attractiveness-related products. When advertising fashion goods selecting a brand ambassador is very important because they are looked as the face of the brand, they way the look is very important for these goods, apart from this their social life is also very important (Guido et al 2009). Because their social life can affect the image of the brand a good example for this would be Tiger woods, in 2010 when his personal life was under lime light, his personal image was portrayed in a negative format and thus many brands associated with him felt that these media images might affect the image of the brand. These influential people in the socie ty are watched very keenly and some time people try to imitate them mainly the way they dress.Brand loyaltyDoyle (1989) stated, that the most significant condition of brand success was connected with differential advantage and the stupendous reputation or image for quality, service, or reliability. This he believed will in turn create brand loyalty.Ehrenberg and Scriven, (1996) states that brand loyalty varies little from brand to brand. Some papers state that, cissessed in long term on the undercoat of a competitive advantage that competitors find baffling or complicated to reduplicate or achieve and that consumers distinguish as highly desirable for example superior customer service or the brand image/attiude that create brand loyalty. (Cokayne 1991 and De Chematony and McDonald 1994)Loyal customers are the strength of the value of a brand as it is these customers who are least likely to defect and hence it will be these customers who will be going to buy the same brand for y ears to come (Hofmeyr and Rice, 2000). Isabel Buil,et al (2009)says that, Brand extensions with high fit put one over more favorable consumer evaluations and decrease the negative feedback effects of extensions on arouse brand equity.A brand can stimulate greater levels of the repeat purchase phenomenon among customers, especially the loyal ones (Miller, 2005). Customer loyalty has become something of a legend in marketing concepts and theories, which is based on the above assumption. Brand loyalty has largely been defined in terms of attitudinal terms or behavioural terms (Mellen et al,1996). The researchers generally consent to the point that Brand loyalty is a complex construct (Javalgi and Moberg, 1997) and claim wide acceptance to the definition brought forward in the first instance by Jacoby (1971). Thus the widely accepted definition for Brand Loyalty is that, it is biased (non-random) behavioural response (purchase) expressed over time by some decision-making unit with re spect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of brands and is a function of psychological processes.At the same time the definition enjoys wide acceptance it is also noted that the few people would be classified as truly loyal when all the above stated criteria have to be complied with. As Wood (2004) observes that it is possible for consumers to buy a brand they dislike because it is the one that is readily available to them .Also states that it should not be assumed that behavioural loyalty involves feelings or positive cognitive process as antecedents. Thus Brand loyalty however is not the restore driver for the customers to stick to a particular brand. wiz of the investigations into the issue introduced a new paradigm of brand commitment. Hofmeyr and Rice (2000) argue that the key to brand profits is creating a committed customer base. They suggests that the customer purchasing decision is influenced by how committed they are to the brand, as even though the consumer m ay buy a particular brand repeatedly, this may be because the brand of their choice is not available to too expensive. Hence points out that the brand attitude would be one of the deciding factors in loyal behaviour, there are other influential factors like distribution, market concentration and activities promoting the brand.It is very important for the brand owners to keep track and understand the variables that are the basis of loyalty , specially that of the loyalty behaviour for the brands due to various reasons. Today, conventional consumer life-stages are fragmenting , the social and economic changes raging from fractured career paths, redundancy , change magnitude in single, separated, widowers and divorcee group etc all of it disrupts the traditional pattern(Kottler and Keller,2006). ). Studies have shown that consumer buying behaviour is habitual, habit have also been hard to find out, and looked on as safe and familiar (Bandyopadhyay,Gupta and Dube,2005). Therefore, i f the competitor brand is to inspire loyalty and break an old habit, it would be a real success in marketing and brand management. A recent research on the importance of the nature of brand loyalty, argued that the relation between brand loyalty and size of the brand is inversely proportional(Bandyopadhyay,Gupta and Dube,2005). Smaller brands attract fewer customers than large brands, and customers opt for bigger brands far more frequently, this double disadvantage of the less popular brands is termed by many experts as double jeopardy (Bandyopadhyay,Gupta and Dube,2005).A study shows that business lose between 15 % to 20% of customers a year, and retention of 80 % means that customers on average , remain loyal only for 5 years and improving retention to 90% leads to the average life of a customer doubling to ten years (Boone and Kurtz,2006).There have been several other studies which seem to corroborate the fact that brand loyalty is a highly desirable phenomenon to any marketing i nitiative. Customer loyalty and structure long -term relationships is vital as more saturated the market, the more difficult and expensive it is to win new customers and more the existing customers are.It goes to the extend that the increasing focus of marketers on retention of exsisting customers and less on attracting new ones(Verhoef,2003). One of the widely quoted studies in most of the literature was a research conducted by Bain and Co, which came up with a simple equation suggesting that the cost of winning a new customer would be five times as high as the cost of retaining an old one (Reichheld, 1996). This is a significant inducement for companies to invest in measures which help boost brand loyalty. The same paper also gave out a statistic suggesting that a minor control on the rate at which the customers defect form the companies brand can have a significant impact on the overall profitability i.e. a cut of 10-15% can boost the profitability by over 60% (Reichheld, 1996) .There is however little doubt about the role of brand loyalty in building the strength of a brand and adding value to the business. Specified below are some of reasons which emphasize the implications of building the emotional relationship with the customer in terms of brand loyalty (Miller, 2005)-Cost The costs of attaining new customers are condensed to a great degreeDistributors e.g. retailers are happier to stock brands with high loyaltyHighly loyal customers tend to become brand advocates to family, friends and colleagues and thus act as ambassadors of the brand and bring in new customersA loyal customer foundation acts as a breathing space for companies a kind when faced with market changesBrand loyalty has thus a important role in be brand equity and brand valuation.Brand image and brand attitudesignificant research efforts has been concentrated on identifying important brand or store attributes that constitute brand or store image which influence consumers store choice an d benefaction (Dickerson and Albaum, 1977 Hansen and Deutscher, 1977-1978 Lindquist, 1975). Erdem et al. (1999) studed the nine dimensions of Lindquist (1975) and developed an evolved three key store attributes for clothing shopping(1) Status(2) Merchandise and(3) Price.Apart from this approach, Westbrook and portentous (1985) also hypothesized three categories of shopping motives(1) Product-oriented(2) Experiential and(3) A combination of product and experiential.Accordind to Parks and his teams study, brand images or advertisements based on an perceptive of consumer motives/needs have been viewed as an efficient way to converse product benefits (Park et al., 1986 Jiaxun He, 2010). Doyle (1989) revealed that the most essential principle of brand success combined with the degree of difference advantage was exceptional reputation or image for quality, reliability or service. This, he was convinced that this, enabled successful brands to accomplish numerous additional criteria, for i nstance seize higher prices than less successful brands. However some researcher argue that the success of a brand depends on factores like market share, shareholders equity and profitability (Innscher1993, , Gale 1987, Hansen, Gronhaug and Wameryd, 1990 and wilson 1978). (Dall Olmo Riley et al., 1997) have recognized strong correlations involving a brands market share and consumer attitudes towards it. But according to Pitta and Katsanis (1995), successful brands were the brands with a strong image or personality, when consumers perceived specific attributes as being strongly associated with particular brands. Keller (1993) describes, that the brand associations needed to be congment because the favourability and strength a brand association could be influenced by other brand associations.De Ghematony and McDonald (1994) in their study highlights the importance of added values as a main feature of successful brands.De Ghematony and McDonald (1994) also mentioned that, it was percei ved effect, other than the actual quality that accounted and that this effect was assessed by consumers in camparison to other brands. These consumer-based achievement criteria are influential to business-based measures of achievement, such as the accordant stream of future income and the superior eamings that originate from high market shares, superior pricing and from the ability to resist pressure from the trade for discounts. (De Chernatony et al,1998).Joachimsthaler and Aaker (1997) explains that visibility have to be joined with clear brand identity, so that those conniving and implementing the communications channels do not accidentally send confusing or conflicting messages to consumers. Stephens et al. (1996) states, that a long-term good relationship with the consumer is very important in creating of successful brands image. With the creation of a high brand image and brand attitude, brand will be able to originate to support pricing, high market shares, and from the ab ility to oppose pressure from the business for discounts. (Gokayne 1991)

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